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  • Oct 01, 2020How to Become a Neutral

    The Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group, will be a panelist for the Pennsylvania Bar Association (PBA) Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee Lunch Time Learning Program, “How to Become a Neutral.”

    How to Become a Neutral

    This program boasts a panel of mediators and arbitrators who will talk to participants about their career paths and how they became neutrals. Judge Giordano will be joined by Mary Kate Coleman, Sunu Pillai, and Selina Shultz.

    When: Tuesday, October 13, 2020

    Registration for PBA Members: pabar.org

    About Judge Giordano

    Judge Giordano focuses his practice on estate and commercial litigation, and mediation and arbitration. As an arbitrator and mediator, he is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation, is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators, and is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation. Judge Giordano serves as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution.

    Judge Giordano served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. He was Northampton County’s first administrative Judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans’ Court. He was also the first Judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens. For fifteen years, Judge Giordano served as judge for many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and Federal Law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations.

    Judge Giordano is Vice-Chair of the Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee for the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. He is a Diplomate Member for mediation for the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals. He is also a member of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society and the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, Judge Giordano was the first judicial recipient to receive the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victim’s Rights. He was also a recipient of the Bethlehem Catholic High School Distinguished Graduate Award.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Events, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), Litigation | Tags: , ,

  • Aug 10, 2020Judge Giordano Appointed Chair of Northampton County Bar Association Alternative Dispute Resolution Ad Hoc Committee

    The Honorable Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group, has been appointed the Chair for the newly-created Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Ad Hoc Committee within the Northampton County Bar Association.

    “More than ever, attorneys must now utilize creative and efficient alternatives to traditional litigation when assisting clients with legal disputes. It is our duty to teach the effective use of ADR as a path outside of traditional litigation to bring about a faster way of achieving results,” said Judge Giordano.

    About the Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee

    What might have been characterized as the typical or routine delays built into a legal dispute may be now exacerbated by new delays as our courts address the complications of a national pandemic leaving parties waiting longer and longer for their day in court. Forums for mediation or arbitration can move quickly over several weeks, providing relief to the disputing parties and enabling them to get back to their lives and businesses.

    The Special Ad Hoc Committee on Alternative Dispute Resolution will focus on initiatives and education aimed at most effectively bringing ADR techniques and proceedings to bear on legal disputes to help avoid costly and time-consuming traditional litigation. The first meeting for this committee will be held Tuesday, August 11, at 8:00 a.m. on Zoom. If you are interested in joining this committee, please email Mary Beth at marybeth@norcobar.org to register and to receive the meeting login information.

    About Judge Giordano

    Judge Giordano served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. He was Northampton County’s first administrative judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans Court. He was also the first judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens.

    For 15 years, Judge Giordano presided over many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and federal law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations.

    As an arbitrator and mediator, Judge Giordano is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation. He is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators; is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation; has been inducted into the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals (NADN) as a Diplomate Member for mediation; and has been selected to serve as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution.

    Judge Giordano is a member of the Board of Directors for the Notre Dame CYO, and of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society; and is the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, he was the first judicial recipient of the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victims’ Rights. On January 1, 2020, Judge Giordano was designated Vice-Chair of the statewide Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

    Judge Giordano earned his J.D. in 1985 from Villanova University School of Law and his B.A. from Moravian College in 1982. A proud Moravian College alumnus, he serves as an Adjunct Professor for undergraduate classes. Born in Brooklyn to Italian immigrant parents, Judge Giordano was the first in his family to attend high school and is a graduate of Bethlehem Catholic High School, which presented him with its Distinguished Graduate Award.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), News | Tags: ,

  • Jul 20, 2020Trial Lawyers Section: Mediation Practice Tips

    The Honorable Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group, will be a panelist for the Montgomery Bar Association’s webinar, “Trial Lawyers Section: Mediation Practice Tips.”

    Mediation Practice Tips

    Discussion topics will include:

    • Pre-mediation submissions
    • Joint session statements
    • Client expectations
    • Useful negotiation tactics
    • Mediator recommendations
    • Follow-up strategies

    When: Thursday, August 20, 2020

    noon – 1:00 p.m.

    Registration: montgomerybar.org

    • Law Student: $14.50
    • Paralegal: $14.50
    • Member – No CLE Credit: $14.50
    • Member: $30.00
    • Non-Member: $50.00

    1 CLE credit is pending.

    About Judge Giordano

    Judge Giordano served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. He was Northampton County’s first administrative judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans Court. He was also the first judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens.

    For 15 years, Judge Giordano presided over many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and federal law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations.

    As an arbitrator and mediator, Judge Giordano is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation. He is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators; is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation; has been inducted into the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals (NADN) as a Diplomate Member for mediation; and has been selected to serve as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution.

    Judge Giordano is a member of the Board of Directors for the Notre Dame CYO, and of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society; and is the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, he was the first judicial recipient of the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victims’ Rights. On January 1, 2020, Judge Giordano was designated Vice-Chair of the statewide Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Events, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), Litigation | Tags: , ,

  • Jul 15, 20202020 Pennsylvania Defense Institute Annual Conference and Continuing Legal Education

    The Honorable Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group, will be a panelist for the 2020 Pennsylvania Defense Institute (PDI) Annual Conference and Continuing Legal Education’s “Mediation” program.

    About the Pennsylvania Defense Institute Conference

    In addition to the six CLE credits, participants can enjoy the many networking opportunities at the mixers, breakfast, golf, lunch, awards ceremony, and president’s reception and dinner. Other continuing legal education (CLE) program topics include:

    • Emerging legal issues in cannabis
    • Business interruption claims
    • Civil litigation
    • Personal injury
    • Generational issues and changes
    • Women and diversity in law

    When: July 15 – 17, 2020

    “Mediation:” Friday, June 17, 2020, 11:30 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.

    Where: Omni Bedford Springs Resort

    2138 Business 220, Bedford, PA 15522

    Registration: padefense.org

    About Judge Giordano

    Judge Giordano served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. He was Northampton County’s first administrative judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans Court. He was also the first judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens.

    For 15 years, Judge Giordano presided over many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and federal law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations.

    As an arbitrator and mediator, Judge Giordano is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation. He is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators; is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation; has been inducted into the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals (NADN) as a Diplomate Member for mediation; and has been selected to serve as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution.

    Judge Giordano is a member of the Board of Directors for the Notre Dame CYO, and of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society; and is the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, he was the first judicial recipient of the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victims’ Rights. On January 1, 2020, Judge Giordano was designated Vice-Chair of the statewide Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Events, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), Litigation | Tags: , ,

  • Jul 01, 2020Mediator’s Tips for Successful Virtual Mediation

    More than ever, attorneys must now utilize creative and efficient alternatives to traditional litigation when assisting clients with legal disputes. Virtual mediation seems to have become the “new normal,” so if you have one scheduled, here are some tips:

    Virtual Mediation Tips

    • Learn the technology
      • Loading Zoom onto your phone or computer is easy
        • Give it a test run with your family and/or officemates
      • Make sure the client has loaded Zoom and has a stable source of WIFI
      • Ask mediator for a run-through
      • Make sure no one records the mediation
    • Backup plans
      • Have two phones available
      • Get everyone’s phone numbers
    • Do not schedule mediation unless you are ready to settle
      • If your client who is the defendant says, “there’s no way I’m going to pay any money,” don’t go to mediation
    • The parties and all decision-makers must be present
      • Joint sessions vs. private sessions
    • Memos should be done well in advance and should be shared with the other side with plenty of time for evaluation of your claim
      • Pictures
      • Medical reports (not every piece of paper generated by the hospital)
      • Relevant portions of deposition transcripts (not the tiny print ones)
    • Negotiations
      • Prepare your client for a long day and they will feel insulted at times
      • Don’t quit or lose your cool (this can be tedious at times)
      • Don’t make outrageous demands
      • Don’t make dinner plans or plane reservations
      • Bring other work
      • Do keep talking and no ultimatums

    This article was written by the Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group. A printable version is available to download here.

    If you have any questions about this article or any related matter, please feel free to contact him at egiordano@norris-law.com. For more topics related to COVID-19, visit our Coronavirus Thought Leadership Connection.

    The information contained in this post may not reflect the most current developments, as the subject matter is extremely fluid and constantly changing. Please continue to monitor this site for ongoing developments. This article provides information about current legal developments of mediation in the area of litigation and alternative dispute resolution. The information contained in this article should not be construed as legal advice and readers should not act upon such without professional counsel. Copyright © 2020 Norris McLaughlin, P.A.

    About Norris McLaughlin

    As well as representing our clients during commercial and civil disputes, our attorneys often serve as independent arbitrators and mediators. They are experienced in handling disputes for matters involving attorney ethics and fees, banking, corporate dissolutions, deadlocks and acquisitions, energy, environmental, estates, health care, information technology, insurance, intellectual property, labor and employment, matrimonial, products liability, and utility issues. We also offer innovative services in case consultation and complex case management.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), Litigation |

  • May 11, 2020How to Represent Your Client in a Virtual Mediation

    The Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Law Practice Group, will co-present the webinar, “How to Represent Your Client in a Virtual Mediation,” as part of the Northampton County Bar Association (NCBA) Lunch Lectures.

    About the Virtual Mediation Webinar

    Mediation has become a critical part of every litigator’s dispute resolution toolbelt. Are your skills and knowledge up to date? Judge Giordano, as well as other local attorneys, will explain why effective advocacy in mediation requires much more than a persuasive legal argument. It requires an understanding of the objectives of mediation, familiarity with the mediation process, and well-honed negotiation skills. Designed for civil litigators who may have limited or no experience in virtual mediation, this program will cover the following:

    • The decision whether and when to mediate
    • Mediating on Zoom Platform
    • Selecting a mediator (e.g., mediator style; background)
    • Preparing a mediation memo
    • Approaching pre-mediation calls with the mediator
    • Opportunities and pitfalls of the “joint session”
    • Deploying negotiation skills at the bargaining table
    • Working productively with the mediator
    • Ethical dilemmas in mediation
    • How to “follow-up” when the parties are unable to reach a settlement

    When: Thursday, May 21, 2020

    noon – 1:00 p.m.

    Registration: norcobar.org

    • NCBA Members admitted before November 1, 2014: $25.00
    • All BALC Members: $25.00
    • NCBA Members Admitted after November 1, 2014: $25.00
    • All other attendees: $40.00

    This course is pending approval for one hour of CLE by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

    About Judge Giordano

    Judge Giordano focuses his practice on estate and commercial litigation, and mediation and arbitration. As an arbitrator and mediator, he is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation, is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators, and is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation. Judge Giordano serves as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution.

    For fifteen years, Judge Giordano served as judge for many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and Federal Law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations. He served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. Judge Giordano was Northampton County’s first administrative Judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans’ Court. He was also the first Judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens.

    Judge Giordano is Vice-Chair of the Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee for the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. He is a Diplomate Member for mediation for the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals, a member of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society, and a member of the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, Judge Giordano was the first judicial recipient to receive the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victim’s Rights. He was also a recipient of the Bethlehem Catholic High School Distinguished Graduate Award.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Events, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.) | Tags: , ,

  • Jan 13, 2020Judge Giordano Selected for International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution Panels of Distinguished Neutrals

    The Honorable Emil Giordano (Ret.), a Member of law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., and Co-Chair of its Litigation Practice Group, has been selected to serve as an arbitrator and mediator to the Judicial Roster, Real Estate, and Pennsylvania at Large ADR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention & Resolution (CPR).

    “I am excited to serve on the CPR Panels and look forward to continuing my mediation and arbitration work with such prominent and talented people. To be included is extremely humbling and I truly appreciate the recognition,” said Judge Giordano.

    About the CPR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals

    CPR is an independent nonprofit organization that has been assisting in the prevention and resolution of legal conflict more effectively and efficiently through ADR, such as mediation, arbitration, early neutral evaluation, and dispute resolution boards, for over forty years. CPR’s high standards are maintained by adherence to its Principles for Provider Organizations, ensuring that its mediators, arbitrators, and other neutrals are qualified and competent.

    The CPR Panels of Distinguished Neutrals are comprised of prominent attorneys, retired state and federal judges, academics, business executives, legal experts, and dispute resolution professionals who are highly-qualified to resolve all business disputes. To be admitted as a panelist, individuals are peer-reviewed; screened for their ADR expertise and training; and candidate references are asked to comment on the applicant’s qualifications to serve on complex commercial disputes. Qualification to the CPR panels is exclusive and rigorous.

    About Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.)

    Judge Giordano served as a presiding judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Northampton County, Third Judicial District, from 2004 through 2018. He was Northampton County’s first administrative judge of the Orphans’ County Division, overseeing estates and trusts of the county, and was named to the Statewide Orphans’ Court Task Force, an organization charged with implementing changes to Orphans Court. He was also the first judge in Pennsylvania to institute guardianship certification requirements for the protection of senior citizens.

    For 15 years, Judge Giordano presided over many jury trials and non-jury trials, hearings and motions, and a wide range of disputes under Pennsylvania and federal law, including construction, commercial litigation, professional malpractice, CERCLA, Civil Rights, condemnations, labor and land use appeals, criminal, and domestic relations.

    As an arbitrator and mediator, Judge Giordano is certified through Harvard Law School Negotiation Institute in Advanced Mediation. He is a fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators; is affiliated with the American Arbitration Association (AAA) Mediation; and has been inducted into the Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals (NADN) as a Diplomate Member for mediation

    Judge Giordano is a member of the Board of Directors for the Notre Dame CYO, and of the Board of Governors for Saint Thomas More Society; and is the Northampton County Bar Association Wills and Trusts Committee Lecturer. In 2005, he was the first judicial recipient of the Lehigh Valley Crime Victims Council Award for Outstanding Commitment to Victims’ Rights. Commencing January 1, 2020, Judge Giordano has been designated Vice-Chair of the statewide Orphans’ Court Procedural Rules Committee by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

    Judge Giordano earned his J.D. in 1985 from Villanova University School of Law and his B.A. from Moravian College in 1982. A proud Moravian College alumnus, he serves as an Adjunct Professor for undergraduate classes. Born in Brooklyn to Italian immigrant parents, Judge Giordano was the first in his family to attend high school and is a graduate of Bethlehem Catholic High School, which presented him with its Distinguished Graduate Award.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Hon. Emil Giordano (Ret.), News | Tags: ,

  • Nov 01, 2019Norris McLaughlin Recognized in U.S. News – Best Lawyers® Best Law Firms For 10th Consecutive Year

    Law firm Norris McLaughlin, P.A., is proud to announce that it has been selected for inclusion in 12 practice areas in the “2020 Best Law Firms” rankings by U.S. News Media Group and Best Lawyers. This marks the 10th consecutive year the firm has earned Metropolitan First-Tier rankings in New Jersey. The firm’s full listing of First Tier rankings is as follows:

    • Arbitration
    • Bankruptcy and Creditor Debtor Rights/Insolvency and Reorganization Law
    • Commercial Litigation
    • Energy Law
    • Environmental Law
    • Family Law Mediation
    • Litigation – Bankruptcy
    • Litigation – Construction
    • Litigation –- Environmental
    • Mediation
    • Product Liability Litigation – Defendants
    • Trusts & Estates Law

    “It’s an honor for the firm to be highly ranked in multiple, diverse practice areas. We are proud of our client relationships and it’s especially rewarding to earn this recognition based largely on their feedback,” said John N. Vanarthos, Chairman of the firm.

    About Best Law Firms

    From the start, the mission of Best Law Firms has been to help guide referring lawyers and clients – from the country’s largest companies needing corporate legal advice to individuals needing a divorce or a will – issues with bet-the-company implications or potentially life-changing results respectively. The U.S. News – Best Lawyers® “Best Law Firms” rankings are based on a rigorous evaluation process that includes the collection of client and lawyer evaluations, peer review from leading attorneys in their fields, and review of additional information provided by law firms as part of the formal submission process. A full listing is posted online at www.usnews.com/bestlawfirms.

    About Norris McLaughlin

    Norris McLaughlin has been serving the New Jersey community and New York metropolitan area since 1953. Once a humble two-man practice on Main Street in Somerville, Norris McLaughlin has become the largest firm in Somerset County and one of the top 20 firms in New Jersey. Throughout its growth, the firm remembers its culture and values. Norris McLaughlin has remained a firm committed to client service, its community, and its employees. The firm and its attorneys have historically been committed to the communities where clients live and do business.

    Clients value a personal level of care, therefore the firm strives for deep, meaningful, people-first relationships with each one. With many of its attorneys selected as The Best Lawyers In America each year, in addition to its active repertoire of speaking engagements and legal publications, Norris McLaughlin possesses large-firm talent in a small-firm setting that allows its attorneys to provide service and value to their clients on a personal level. It is the firm’s goal to accommodate the needs of every client through the use of experience, strategic planning, and common courtesy.

    Norris McLaughlin is a full-service, mid-sized regional law firm of 130+ attorneys with main offices located in Bridgewater, NJ; New York, NY; and Allentown, PA.  For more information, including a full practice area listing and attorney biographies, please visit www.norrismclaughlin.com.

    Posted in: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Bankruptcy & Creditors' Rights, Construction Law, Environmental, Estate Planning & Administration, Litigation, Matrimonial & Family Law, News, Products Liability Defense, Solar Energy | Tags: , ,

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